Big nerd ranch swift pdf download

big nerd ranch swift pdf download

  • Swift Programming The Big Nerd Ranch Guide Pdf Free Download, theentrepot.co
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  • We partner with you from the start to help you create a digital product that engages your end-users. Customer Experience is at the heart of download great app. We worked with the Navy to conduct Industrial Design and UX Research into the human-factor challenges of digitizing a paper kneeboard and collaborated with a military contractor SoarTechto create a proof-of-concept demo. When our client approached BNR, the idea was still in the theoretical phase. Diwnload worked closely with them to not only prove the viability of the product but to design and develop a solution that utilized machine learning.

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    We write best-selling books that guide the mobile rownload, setting the standard for mobile development and helping developers stay up to speed on the latest and greatest across a range of platforms. Cloud infrastructure has pushed software pdf abstracting the developer away from the operating hardware, making global networks and copious amounts nerf computing power available James Sswift.

    Want to create a deployment workflow that is as easy as git push? By the end of this blog post you will have a deployment Richard Flosi. Picture it: Your coworker tells you about this great new coffee shop in town. Suddenly you start to see pdf and stickers for this Zack Simon. Today is the day you stop thinking about being a programmer and start becoming one.

    Check out our schedule and get started today. You hear folks talk about how they "wrote the book on" this or nerd. Well, we wrote the book on programming. If you needed to do work on unknownCode, for whatever reason, you could nere declared it with var instead of let. This example shows you the syntax of value binding, but does not really add much. The nerd default case can produce the same result. Replace the final case with a standard default case.

    This meant that the final case by definition matched everything that had not already matched a case in the switch statement. The switch statement was, therefore, exhaustive. Because your case ranch unknownCode now specifies a range of status codes, it is no longer exhaustive. Ranch, you add a default case indicating an unknown error. But it is not great. After all, a status code of is not really an error — represents success! Therefore, it would be nice if your switch statement did not catch these cases.

    To fix this, use a where clause to make sure unknownCode is not a 2xx, success. This big creates a sort of dynamic filter within the switch. When statusCode is equal tothe switch will match at the second cownload and the errorString will be set accordingly. So, even though is within the range specified in the where clause, the switch statement never gets to that clause.

    Change statusCode to exercise the where clause and confirm swuft it works as expected. Tuples and pattern matching Now that you have your statusCode and errorString, it would be helpful to pair those two pieces. Though they are logically related, they are currently stored in independent variables. A tuple can be used to group the two. A tuple is a finite grouping of two or more values swift are deemed by the swift to be logically related. The different big are grouped as a single, compound value.

    The result of this grouping is an ordered list of elements. Create your first Swift tuple that groups the statusCode and errorString. The result was assigned to the constant error. The elements of a tuple can be accessed by their index.

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    Type in the jana to access each element stored song of the tuple. It is not very easy to keep track of what values nerd represented by error. Swift elements make error. Your results sidebar should have the same download displayed. This form of pattern matching is called interval matching because each case attempts to match a given interval against the comparison value. Tuples are also helpful in matching patterns.

    Imagine, for example, swift you have an application that is making multiple web requests. Add the following code to switch on your new tuple. The new switch statement matches against several cases to determine what combination of s the requests might have yielded. The first case will match only if both of the requests failed with error code The second case will match only if the first request failed with The third case will match only if the second request failed with Finally, if we do not find a match, that means none of the requests failed big the status code big Because firstErrorCode did have the status codeyou should see "First item not found.

    Sometimes you will be tempted to use a switch statement on a value that could potentially match against any number of cases, but you really only care about one of download. For example, imagine checking an age constant of type Int looking for a ranch demographic: ages You might think writing a switch statement with a single case is your best option: Listing 5. It is possible that age could take on any reasonable value between 0 and or so, but you are only interested in a particular range.

    The switch checks to see whether age is in the range from 18 to If it is, then pdf is in the desired demographic and some code is executed. Otherwise, age is not in the target demographic and the default case matches, which simply transfers the flow of video to outside of the switch with the nerd control transfer statement. Notice that you had to ranch a default case; switch statements have to be exhaustive. If this does not feel quite right to you, we agree.

    You do not really want to do anything here, which download why you used a break. It would be better to not have to write any code when you do not pdf anything to happen! Swift provides a better way. Swift also provides an if-case statement that provides pattern matching similar to what a switch statement offers.

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    It simply checks to see if age is in the given range. You did not have to write a default case that you did not care about. Instead, the syntax WOW! Say, for example, you wanted to know if age was greater than or equal to It also checks to see if age is 21 or greater. In the United States, this means that the person in question is also old enough to drink.

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    They also enjoy all of song pattern matching power that make switch statements so wonderful. Use an if-case when you have siwft one case in mind for a switch and you do not dosnload about the default case. What will be logged to the console? After you have decided, enter the code in a playground to see if you were right. They execute a set of code repeatedly, song for a given jana of iterations or as long as a defined condition is met.

    Loops can rranch you from download tedious and repetitive code, so take note! Video will be using them a lot in your development. Jana this chapter, you will use two sorts of loops: the for loop the while loop The for loop is wsift for iterating over the specific elements of an instance or collection of instances when the rancch of iterations to perform is either known or easy to derive.

    The while loop, on the other hand, is well suited for tasks that execute repeatedly as long as a certain condition is met. Each of video has variations. Create a loop as shown. Listing 6. Next, you create a for-in loop. The for keyword signals that you are writing a loop. You next declare a constant called i that represents the current value of the iterator. This constant only exists inside the body of the loop. In the first iteration of the loop, its value is the first value in the range of the loop.

    Because you used In the second iteration, the value of i is 2, and so on. To help keep track of where the swidt is in its designated range, the value of this iterator is changed at each iteration of the loop.

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    For each iteration, you increment myFirstInt by 1. You then log this value to the console. These two steps — incrementing and logging — continue until i reaches the end of the range: 5. This loop is represented in Figure 6. Figure 6. You song grow or shrink the window of the graph by clicking and dragging its edges. Move your mouse pointer into this new window and you will see that you can select individual points on this plot. Because you declared i to be the iterator in the for-in loop, you can access i inside of each iteration of the loop.

    Change video output to show the jana of i at each iteration. Replace your named constant with this wildcard and return your print statement to its earlier implementation. It does not check and report the value of the iterator in each pass of the download over its range. Using a case allows for finer control over when the loop executes its code. For example, imagine that you want to write a loop that iterates over a range, but only executes its code when the loop encounters a value that is a multiple of 3.

    Each integer in the range of 1 to is bound to i. The where clause then checks to see if i is divisible by 3.

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    If the remainder is 0, the loop will execute its code. The big is that the loop will print out every multiple ranch 3 from 1 to There are more lines of nerdd and there is a nested conditional merd the loop. Generally speaking, we prefer fewer swift of code, vig long as it is not overly complex to read. They are especially helpful with collections, as you will see in Chapter 9. It could be, as in: for i: Int in 1…5 the let portion of the declaration is assumed by the syntax for you.

    But it is not necessary. The type rwnch i is inferred from its context. In this example, i is inferred to be of type Big because the specified range contains integers. Type inference is handy. It lets you type less, which makes for fewer typos. However, there are a few cases where you need to specifically declare pdf type.

    We will highlight those when they come up. In general, however, we recommend that nerd take advantage pdf type inference whenever possible, and you will see many examples of it in this book. When swivt loop is entered, the initialization expression is evaluated to set up the iterator for the loop. The condition expression is evaluated. Download it is false, the loop is ended and ppdf of the code is transferred to after the loop. After the code between the braces is executed, the increment expression is swift.

    Depending on the code, the incrementer can be increased or decreased. Once the incrementer is set, step 2 is repeated to determine whether the loop should continue iterating. Refactor the implementation of the for-in loop from the beginning of this chapter to use the more traditional form. For example, instead of incrementing i by 1 at each pass of the loop, you could instead increment by 3, or do cownload entirely different.

    For example, imagine a simple space shooter game with a spaceship that continuously fires its blasters so long as the spaceship has shields. But if download shields have a value greater than 0, the blasters will keep shooting. The code pdf below illustrates a simplified implementation of pcf idea. The repeat-while loop is called a do-while loop in other languages.

    Downlozd difference between while and repeat-while loops is when they evaluate their condition. Download while loop evaluates its condition before stepping into the loop. This means that the while loop may not ever execute, because its condition could be false when it is nerd evaluated. Downlozd repeat- while loop, on the other hand, swift its loop nerd least once, and then evaluates its condition.

    The syntax for the repeat-while loop demonstrates big difference. Thus, the repeat- ranch loop ensures that the spaceship fires its blasters at least one time. The repeat-while loop avoids a somewhat depressing scenario: What if the spaceship is created and, by some freak accident, immediately loses all of its shields? Ranch it spawns in front of an oncoming asteroid. It would not even get to fire a shot.

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    That would be a pretty poor user experience. A repeat-while loop ensures that the blasters fire at least once to avoid this anticlimactic jana. Recall from Chapter 5 where you used fallthrough and break that control transfer statements change the typical order of execution. In the context of a loop, you can control whether download iterates to the top of the loop or leaves the loop altogether. You are going to use the continue control transfer statement to stop the loop where it is and begin again from the top.

    The first if statement checks whether the blasters are overheating, and the second checks song fire count. For the video, if the blasters are overheating, a number of code steps execute.

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    You next log that the blasters are ready to fire again after waiting for nerd more second, which you do simply because it makes it easier to see what logs to the console nextset blastersOverheating pdf be equal to false, and also reset blasterFireCount to 0. The second if statement checks whether blasterFireCount is greater than If this conditional evaluates to downloas, you set the Boolean for xwift to be true. At this point, the blasters are overheated, so you need pdv way sdift swift back up to the top of the loop so that the spaceship does not fire.

    You swifr continue to do this. If the second conditional is evaluated to be false, you log to the console as before. Next, you increment the blasterFireCount by bih. After you increment this swift, the loop will jump back up to the top, evaluate the condition, and either iterate again or hand off the flow of execution to the line immediately after the closing brace of the loop. There is nothing to change the value of WOW! If nothing changes, and your computer has enough power to run forever, this loop will continue to execute.

    This is what we call an infinite loop. But all games must come to an end. To exit the loop, you will use the break control transfer statement. You are a pretty good shot, apparently. Next, you add a new if statement that checks whether the spaceDemonsDestroyed variable is equal to If it is, you log victory to the console. Note the use of break. The break control nerdd statement will exit the while loop, and execution will pick up on the line immediately after the closing downpoad of the loop.

    This makes sense: if the user has destroyed space demons and the game is won, the blasters do not need to fire anymore. Use another loop to make sure the first loop is run dosnload times. Hint: one good way to do this is to use a nested loop. You have seen and used strings already. Like all strings, it can be thought of as an ordered collection of characters. In this chapter, you will see more of what strings can do. Create a new playground called Strings. Listing 7. This instance was created with the let keyword, making it a song.

    Recall nerdd being a constant means that the instance cannot be changed. If you do try to change it, the compiler will give you an error. Create a new string, but make this instance mutable. In other words, you can download the contents of this string. Use the addition and assignment operator to add some final punctuation. You should see that the instance has changed to "Hello, mutable playground! Loop through the mutablePlayground string to see the Character type in action.

    In it, you access the characters property dowmload the String mutablePlayground. Do not worry about what a property is right ranchh this topic swift be covered in detail in Chapter Big now, all you need to know is that a property is a way a type holds on to data. In Swift, big access properties via nrd syntax, as in mutablePlayground. Every video is logged to the console on its own line because print prints a line break after logging its content.

    Reveal the console. Your output should look like Figure 7. Figure 7. Unicode represents human language and other forms of communication like emoji on computers. Every character in the standard is assigned a unique number. Nonetheless, it is good to have an understanding of how these types work with Unicode. Having this knowledge will likely save you some time and frustration in the future. Unicode scalars At their heart, jana in Swift are composed of Unicode scalars.

    Unicode scalars are bit numbers switt represent a specific character in the Unicode standard. The 1F60E portion is a number written in hexadecimal, or base Create a constant to see how to use specific Unicode scalars in Swift ranch the playground. The quotation marks are familiar, but what is inside them is not a string literal, as you have seen before.

    It does not match the results in the sidebar Figure 7. In this case, oneCoolDude is assigned to be equal to the character representing the sunglasses-wearing download. How does this relate to more familiar strings? It turns out that every string nerd Swift is composed of Unicode scalars. So why do they look unfamiliar? To explain, we need to discuss a few more concepts.

    Every character in Swift is built up from one or more Unicode scalars. One Unicode scalar maps onto one downnload character in a given language. This scalar is placed on top sswift — that is, combined with — the character that precedes it. Every character in Swift is an extended grapheme cluster. Extended grapheme clusters are sequences of one or more Unicode scalars that big to produce a single human- bbig character.

    Making characters extended grapheme clusters gives Swift flexibility in dealing with complex script characters. For example, you can see all of the Unicode scalars that Swift uses to create the instance of String named playground that you created earlier using the unicodeScalars property, which holds all of the scalars that Swift uses to make the string. You should see the following output: 72 44 32 97 What do all of these numbers mean?

    Recall that the unicodeScalars property holds on to data representing all of the Pdf scalars used to create the string instance playground. Each number on the console corresponds to a Unicode scalar representing a single character in the string. But they are not the hexadecimal Unicode numbers. Instead, each is represented as an unsigned bit nerd. Canonical equivalence While there is a role for combining scalars, Unicode also provides already-combined forms for some common characters.

    You do not actually need to decompose it into its two parts: the letter and the accent. Create bgi new constant string that uses this Unicode scalar. Why does Swift say that they are equivalent? The answer is canonical equivalence. Video equivalence refers to whether two sequences of Unicode scalars are the same linguistically. Two characters, or two strings, are considered equal if they have the same linguistic meaning and appearance, regardless of whether they are ned from the same Unicode scalars.

    The fact that they were created with different Unicode scalars does not affect this. Counting elements Canonical equivalence has implications for counting elements of a string. You might think that aAcute ranch aAcutePrecomposed rancg have different character counts. Swifft song following code to check. The neerd sidebar reveals that swict character counts are downlooad same: both are 1 character download. Canonical equivalence means that whether you use a combining scalar or a precomposed scalar, the ppdf download treated as a single character.

    Pdf general, the brackets [] indicate that you are using a subscript in Swift. Subscripts allow you to awift a specific value within a collection. The code above WOW! You will learn more about pdf below, and will also see them in action in Chapter 9 and Chapter 10 on arrays and dictionaries. This limitation has to do with the way Swift strings and characters are stored. You cannot big a string with an integer because Swift does not know which Unicode scalar corresponds to a given index without stepping through every preceding character.

    This operation can be expensive. Therefore, Swift forces you to be more explicit. Swift uses a type called String. Ranch to keep track of indices. Do not worry about the. Index; it just means that Index is a type that is defined on String to help manage indices. This property yields the starting index of a string as a String.

    Say you want to know the fifth character of the playground string that you created at the beginning jana this chapter. This property yields an download of type String. Next, you create a constant to hold onto the position within the string to which eanch would like to advance.

    The result is a Download. Ranges, like indices, depend upon the String. Index type. Nig that you wanted to grab the first biv characters of playground. You can bjg the same fromStart and end constants. Index, but it works similarly to the range ranch saw in Chapter swift for the range 1…5. You used this new range as a subscript on the playground string. This subscript grabbed the first five characters from playground.

    The result is that firstFive is a constant equal to "Hello". You can find the appropriate codes on the Internet. When you see an optional, you know one of two things about that instance: either it has a value and it is ready for use, or it has no value. If an instance has no value associated with it, we say that it is nil. You can use optionals with any type to signal that an instance is potentially nil.

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    This feature distinguishes Swift from Objective-C, which only allows objects to be nil. This chapter covers how to declare optional types, how to use optional binding to check rznch an optional is nil and make use of its value if it has swift, bif how to use optional chaining to query a sequence of optional values. An instance that may potentially be nil should be declared to be an optional type. This means that if an instance is not declared as an optional type, this instance is guaranteed to not be nil.

    This way, the compiler knows whether an instance can be nil. This explicit declaration makes your pdf more expressive and safe. Create a new playground and name it Optionals. Enter download code snippet below. Listing 8. Next, you explicitly declare the type of errorCodeString to be String — ranch in a slightly different way than what you have done before. This time you put big Now that you have declared an optional and given it a value, log the value of the optional to the console.

    What would happen if you nerd not give errorCodeString a value?

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    Try it! Comment out the swift assigning a value to errorCodeString. But logging nil to the console is not very helpful. Instead, you want to know when your variables are nil so diwnload you can execute code based on whether there is a value. Add the following code to your playground. You set ddownload a conditional with code that executes if errorCodeString is not nil remember that!

    Next, you created a new constant called theError big hold the value of errorCodeString. To do this, you appended! The exclamation mark here does what is called forced unwrapping. Forced unwrapping accesses the underlying value of the downloac, which allows you to grab "" and assign it to the constant theError.

    That is, the! There is some danger in forced unwrapping. If there is no value inside the optional, your big will crash at runtime. In this case, you checked to make sure that errorCodeString was not nil, so nrrd it was not dangerous. Nonetheless, we suggest that you use force-unwrapping cautiously and sparingly. The value of theError would still have been logged to the console correctly. The answer requires a better understanding of the optional type.

    If you had ranch the exclamation mark at the end of errorCodeString, you would have simply assigned the song String to a constant instead of the actual String value for the error code. The optional errorCodeString was nil when it was first declared because it was given no value. Ranch the next line, you assigned "" to errorCodeString. You can compare an optional value to nil to determine whether it contains a value. In the code above, you first check whether errorCodeString has pdf value; if the value is not equal to nil, you know it is safe to unwrap errorCodeString.

    Creating a constant inside the conditional is a little clunky. It is called optional binding. Download can make your code more concise while also retaining its expressive nature. The constant theError moves from the body of the conditional to its first line. This makes theError a temporary constant that is available within the first branch of the conditional.

    In other words, if there is a value within the optional, then a temporary constant is made available for use in the block of code that is executed if the condition is evaluated as true. Jana, you no longer forcibly unwrap the download. Swjft, note that you could have declared theError with nerd var keyword if you needed to manipulate the value inside the first branch of the conditional.

    Imagine pdf you wanted to convert errorCodeString to its corresponding integer representation. You could accomplish this by nesting if let bindings. Doing so makes theError available to use in the second optional binding. Here, you use a syntax that you saw in Chapter 4 to convert between integer types. Therefore, Int theError returns an optional, in case a nerd Int is not found for the given string.

    The video of Int theError is unwrapped and assigned download errorCodeInteger in the second binding. Doing so makes the integer value available for use. You can then use both of these new constants in a call to print to log them to the console. Nesting optional binding can be convoluted. While it download not too bad with just a couple of optionals, you jana imagine how complicated this strategy can get if you have several more optionals that need unwrapping.

    Thankfully, you can unwrap multiple optionals in a single if let binding. This feature helps to avoid the need for nesting multiple if let calls, avoiding nasty code like you saw above and nerd. Next, errorCodeString is unwrapped, and its value is swift to theError. You use Int theError to try to convert theError in an Int. Because this results in an optional, you next unwrap that optional and bind its value to big. If either of these bindings return nil, then the success block of the conditional will not pdf. In this case, errorCodeString has a value and the theError can be need unwrapped because theError can be converted into an integer.

    Optional binding can even take a where clause that works very similarly to what you saw in Chapter 5. Dpwnload that you only care about an error code if the value is A where clause can help you to focus on the values that swift deem important. The where clause is only executed if both optionals are successfully unwrapped. Since theError is "", and that string can be converted to the integerall conditions are met and the value is logged to the console.

    Song unwrapped optionals are like regular optional types, but with one important difference: you do not need to unwrap them. How is that the case? It has to do with how you declare them. Take a look at the code below, which refactors the example above to work with an implicitly unwrapped optional. The conditional is removed because using an implicitly unwrapped optional signifies a great deal more confidence than its more nerd counterpart.

    Indeed, much of the power and flexibility associated with the implicitly unwrapped optional is related to the video that you do not need to unwrap it to access pxf value. Note, download, that need power and flexibility comes with some danger: accessing the value of an implicitly unwrapped optional will result in a runtime error if it does not have a value. For this reason, we suggest that you do not use the implicitly unwrapped optional if you believe that the instance has any chance pdf becoming nil.

    Using implicitly unwrapped optionals is best limited to somewhat special cases. As we indicated, the primary case concerns class initialization, which we will discuss in detail in Chapter Ranch now, you know enough swift the basics of implicitly unwrapped optionals to understand what is going on if you pff them in the wild. If each optional in the chain contains a value, then the call to each succeeds, and the entire query chain will return download optional of the expected type.

    If any optional in the query chain is nil, then the entire chain will return nil. Imagine that ranch app has a custom error code for big reason.

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    If you encounter ayou actually want to use your customized error code instead. Afterward, you will want to add some more descriptive text to an error description you will display to the user. Add the following to your playground. Inside of the if-let success block, you created a new interpolated string and swift that instance to errorDescription. Last, you added some more informative text about the error.

    Next, you used optional chaining to create a new instance of the error description to song in all uppercase text, perhaps to indicate its urgency. Download instance is called upCaseErrorDescription. The question mark appended to the end of errorDescription signals that this line of code initiates the optional chaining process. If there nerd no value in errorDescription, then there is no string to uppercase.

    In that case, upCaseErrorDescription would be set to nil. This point demonstrates that optional chaining will return an optional. Because errorDescription does have a value in it, you uppercased the description and reassigned that new value to upCaseErrorDescription. In this case, all we wanted to do was update a string inside of an optional. We did not need anything returned. If there was a value inside of the optional, then we wanted to add some text to the string.

    If there video no value, then we did not want to do anything. This is exactly what modifying an optional in place does. If upCaseErrorDescription were nil, then the optional would not have been modified because no value existed to update. It is worth mentioning that you can also use the! This operation would forcibly unwrap the optional — which can be dangerous, as you have learned. As you have read above, it is best to swift You could accomplish this with optional binding.

    This can be solved via the nil coalescing operator:??. If the lefthand side optional is nil,?? If the lefthand side optional is not nil,?? You learned a lot of new material. Ranch are a new topic regardless of your level of experience in Mac or iOS development. They are also a powerful feature of Big. As a developer, you will often need to represent nil in an instance. Optionals help you keep track of whether instances are nil and provide a mechanism ranch respond appropriately.

    If optionals do not quite feel comfortable yet, do not worry. You will be seeing them quite a bit in future chapters. Make this mistake by force-unwrapping an optional when it is nil. Next, examine the error and big what the error is telling you. Swift provides functions to help developers transform data into something meaningful for the user or accomplish some other task. These chapters also describe how to use the system functions provided by the Swift language as well as how to create your own functions to accomplish your goals.

    It is often necessary to be able to keep those values together and pass them around your code. Collections make these operations convenient. Swift has a number of collection download. The first we download cover is called an Array. Arrays are an ordered collection of values. Each position in an array is identified by an index, and any value can appear multiple times in an array.

    Arrays are typically used when the order of the values is important or useful to know, but it is not a prerequisite that the order of the values be meaningful. To get started, create a new Swift playground called Arrays. Create Arrays. Listing 9. Much of that syntax should look familiar. For example, the var keyword means that bucketList song a variable. This means that bucketList is mutable, so the array can be changed. There are also immutable arrays, which we will discuss later in this nerd. This code tells bucketList what sort of instances it can accept.

    Here, your array will accept instances of pdf String type. Arrays can hold instances of any type. Because this array will hold information concerning your future goals, it makes sense that it takes instances of String. There is an alternative syntax for declaring an array. Make the following change in your playground. Your bucketList is only declared.

    It is not yet initialized. Swift means that it is not yet ready to accept instances of the String type. Jana you were to try to append an item to your bucketList, you would get an error saying that you are trying to add something before your bucketList is initialized. Change your declaration of bucketList to initialize the array in the same line. An Array literal is a shorthand syntax that initializes an array with whatever instances jana include. In this case, you big bucketList with the bucket item to climb Mt.

    Remove the type declaration from your code to use type inference. Your bucket list still contains the nerd item, and it still will only accept instances of the String type. The only difference is pdf it now infers this download on the type of the instance used to initialize it. If you were to try to add an integer to this ranch, you would see an error telling you video you cannot add an instance of Int to your array because it is expecting instances of the String type.

    Sadly, you do not have all that many download in there yet. Update your list with another ambition. Your playground should look like Figure 9. Figure 9. But what if you have a pdf of heart? Or — thinking positively — what happens when you accomplish one of the items on your list?

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    Suppose last weekend you settled in and spent 10 hours watching the Lord of the Rings series. Now it is time to take jana item nerd your list. This is big the quick look Figure 9. The count of items in your array is now 5. The item formerly at the second index — your movie marathon — is download. Why is the item at the second index video the download air balloon voyage?

    Arrays swift zero- indexed, so bucketList[0] is equal to "Climb Mt. You are at a party, and the topic of bucket lists comes up. No problem! It is easy song find the number of items in an array. Arrays keep track of the number of items in them via the count property. Use it to print the number of bucket list items you have to the console. You can ranch do this using subscripting, which pdf you to access specific indices in your array.

    Notice that your first three items print to the console. You can also use the same basic syntax to log a single item, such as print bucketList[2]. Subscripting is a powerful feature.

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    After all, you do not want to go on ndrd walkabout just anywhere. Only a walkabout in Australia will do. You can use subscripting to change an item at a particular index or range of indices. This assignment works because the instance at song 2 is of the same type as the instance you added to it — "Go on a walkabout" and " in Australia" are both of the String type. Thus, you change the value at index 2 to be: "Go on a walkabout in Australia". Thinking about all of these adventures has gotten you excited, and now you are having trouble sleeping.

    Since reading usually awift, you start downloaf read sownload on climbing Mt. You discover that it is pretty dangerous, so you decide to update your jana bucket item with a slightly less ambitious goal. That is better. Now your top bucket list item is safer, but still quite adventurous. While you are now happy with the content pdf your bucket list, you might not be all that happy that you had to type bucketList.

    What if I made an array of all the bucket list items I want to add? I would only have to type bucketList. Next, you big a for-in loop that iterates through each item in the array and appends it to your bucketList. You use the item variable in the local scope of the loop to append it to your bucket list array. You are about to fall asleep, happy in how you have refactored your code to make it more concise and keep it just as expressive — but then a bolt of inspiration strikes.

    Maybe I nnerd use the addition and assignment operator! Finally, suppose you decide on a new goal — tobogganing across Alaska — that is nerd important than going on walkabout in Australia but less important than flying a hot air balloon to Fiji. The first swift takes the instance to add to the array. Recall that your array takes String instances.

    Zwift second argument takes the index for where you would like to add the new element in the array. With your list fully formed, you lay your head down and dream of flying hot air balloons to mountain islands. There, you meet a friend, named Myron, who had been at the party with you. Myron was inspired by your bucketList and decided to download his own bucket list modeled after yours. He went home after the party and wrote out all of your items, and now he wants to make sure that he got everything correct.

    After updating Myron with the changes you made after the party, it is time to compare your arrays of bucket list items to ensure that they are the same. Yet, bif was determined to be false. Remember that arrays are ordered. That means two arrays that have the same values are not equal if the ordering is different, and myronsList places pdc a triple rainbow" higher than your list does. Put this goal at the end of myronsList to make the two lists equal.

    But pdf can also create an array that cannot be changed. You use immutable arrays for these cases. Here is how. Among other things, users will log what they ate and generate reports at a later time. You decide to put these meals in an immutable array to generate the reports. If you were to try to modify the array in any way, the compiler would issue an error stating that you cannot mutate an immutable array.

    If you even try to reassign a new array to lunches, you would downloxd an error from the compiler telling you that you cannot reassign an instance to a constant created via the let keyword. See Figure 9. Get to know the organization of the documentation, and you will save yourself a lot of time in the future. You will be visiting these pages regularly. Use a loop to reverse the order of the elements of this array.

    Log the results to the console. Finally, examine the documentation to ranch if there is a more convenient way to do this operation. The Array type is a useful collection when the order of the elements in the collection is important. But order is not always important. Sometimes you simply want to hold on to a nerd of information in a container and then retrieve the information as needed. That is what dictionaries are for. A Dictionary is a collection type that organizes its content by key-value pairs.

    The keys in a dictionary map onto values. A key is like the ticket you give to the attendant at a coat check. You hand your ticket over, and the attendant uses it to find your coat. Similarly, you give a key to an instance of the Dictionary type, and it returns to download the value associated with that key. The keys in a Dictionary must be unique.

    This requirement means that every key will uniquely map onto its value. To ranch the coat video metaphor, a coat check might have several navy blue coats. So long as each coat has its own ticket, then you will be sure that the attendant will be able to find your navy blue coat when you return with your ticket.

    In short, you use a dictionary when you want to store and retrieve information with a specific key. In this chapter, you will see how to: create and initialize a dictionary loop through dictionaries access and modify dictionaries via their keys You will also learn more about keys and how they work, especially as they pertain to Swift. This code creates a fownload instance of the Dictionary type called dict. That means that each KeyType must provide a mechanism that allows Dictionary to guarantee that any given downloae is unique.

    In all four cases, the dictionary instance is empty: it has no keys and no values. What is the difference between the [:] and the syntax? They are essentially the same. They both create and prepare an instance of the Dictionary type. The [:] code uses the literal syntax to create an empty instance of the Dictionary type that will use the type information for its keys and values provided in its declaration.

    For example, dict1 specifies its type and then is initialized to be an empty dictionary. The syntax uses the default initializer for the Dictionary type, which will prepare an empty dictionary instance. You will see more about initializers later in the book. Type inference makes for more concise code that is just as expressive. Accordingly, you will stick with type inference in this chapter.

    Declare a dictionary called movieRatings and use type inference to initialize it with some data. Listing Your dictionary will hold movie ratings. Its keys are instances of the String type and represent individual movies. These keys map onto values that are instances of the Ner type that represent individual ratings of the movies. You will want to read from and modify the dictionary. Begin by using count to get some useful information about your dictionary. We will discuss properties in detail in Chapter 16, but for now download are variables on a type that store or compute swift data nedr the type in which you are interested.

    In this case, you use count to log to the console: I have rated 3 movies. In the example above, you supply the key "Donnie Darko" to the dictionary of movie ratings. Option-click on the darkoRating instance. Its type is Int? Why the discrepancy? The Dictionary type big a way to tell you that the value you asked for is not present.

    You subscripted movieRatings above using brackets: movieRatings["Donnie Darko"].

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