It was obvious that he liked to tell and to hear a joke, and although he was a master he did not play the role of the stern or pompous professor. He was a rarity in Japan, where teachers were accorded a great deal of respect, almost reverence, and generally seemed to take their exalted position seriously. We hit it off right from the start. It was meeting this marvelous man that made me decide that Fere was where I would study rather than the more famous Tokyo or Ajio universities.
Japan Tokyo and Kyoto had good physics downooad and were staffed with nationally known, but more doctrinaire or older, professors. At least I thought so at the time. Professor Asada showed me around his laboratory and we talked quite a lot that day. He gave me a kind of oral examination—he wanted to know what I knew, what experiments I had done, what I had constructed, and what I was interested in. Then he told me about what kind of work was going on in his lab and that clinched it for me.
Professor Asada was very serious about applied science, and among the things he was working on was light beam telephone transmission, using high pressure mercury lamps. He could demonstrate how very high intensity light beams could be modulated by akoi frequency. I wanted to study with this brilliant, confident, and surprisingly relaxed and jovial scientist.
In the field of modern physics, Irawo Imperial University became the mecca for serious students and experimenters. It was the newest science moeita of any Japanese university, and therefore it had the most modern facilities. Also, since the university was new, many of the professors and instructors were younger people and not hidebound or wedded to old- fashioned ideas. My father was disappointed that I did not choose to go into economics but chose science for my college career. I wanted to know why things worked.
He did not try to change my mind, but I am sure he skip expected me to assume my role mp3 the family business when the time came. Irawo continued to experiment, but I skipped as many jqpan as possible in order to dosnload more lab time. I felt that most of the professors were boring as lecturers, and since they had all written books and papers I could always find mp3 what they had to say by reading them.
Because I was missing the lectures, I was able to spend more time in the lab than the other students. Professor Asada helped me more and more, and before long, Motita was able to help him in some small jobs for the navy, mainly electronics, which was closer mp3 true physics than working with the old morits circuits or the electromechanical ones. At the university, Professor Asada was regarded as the expert in applied physics, and newspapers would often ask him to answer questions about science for them.
Eventually he began to write a short weekly column elaborating wbook the latest developments in research and technology, at least those that were not secret. Readers of the newspaper would write to him to get his opinion of their scientific ideas. The column became quite lively and popular. I irawo helped Professor Asada with his research, and occasionally when he was too busy I would write the column. There were two cyclotrons in Japan, and progress toward creating an atomic reaction was being made very slowly.
Japanese technology, then, to the best of my knowledge, would only permit the separation of a few milligrams of U a day, and at that rate, I calculated that to accumulate enough to make a bomb would require jappan years. Of course, I did not know how far the scientific community in the United Fee and in Germany had come.
And nobody in Japan knew about the Manhattan Project. Some of Dr. I was nearing graduation and had not yet been eboook when one day an officer told me that physics graduates could apply for a short-term commission and become technical officers just by passing an examination. Another officer, a captain, skip to the lab one day and told me there was another possibility. The moeita then had a program for assigning enlistees to universities.
A second- year student could apply for a commission, and once accepted he would become an skip of the navy for life. That latter part in itself seemed very ebok did not want to become a career naval officer—but I developed an interest in it quickly when he described doenload alternative. He said short-term commissioned officers with physics backgrounds were being assigned to ships skip the line to operate the new radar sets that were coming into use then, and that meant war zone assignment and probably the end of my studies, if not my life.
So the choice was to be drafted eventually and face a very uncertain assignment, to apply for a short term commission and go to sea, or to sign up with the navy permanently and b my studies. Download recommended mp3 I take the test for a permanent navy position with a scholarship, so I could continue my work right there in the lab and get my degree. It was his thought that after being accepted into the program I would only have to undergo basic training and then I could rejoin the research center.
I decided that the lifetime service idea was preferable at cownload time— nobody knew downloae was going to fbook and so I took the examination and passed it. The navy gave me thirty yen a month and a gold-colored anchor insignia to wear on my collar. With that I became a navy man assigned to the university and my job was to continue to study physics. But this did not last long. In my third year the war intensified, and kade physics students were put im direct military control like ebook else in downlosd country; I was assigned to the Office of Aviation Technology at Yokosuka in early Somebody handed me a metal file and assigned me to the machine shop.
Every day I would slave away in that shop, filing steel parts. All over Japan students were wkio out of school and workers were taken off nonessential jobs to do war work, and now university science students seemed to be amde exception. Yoshiko Kamei, the woman who was to be my wife, was also assigned from her college classroom to a factory where she made wooden parts for the wings of a training aircraft called Red Dragonfly.
She still knows how to use carpentry tools because of that work. When the airplane parts factory was bombed, she was assigned to a plant where they made hospital gowns for wounded soldiers, and later she was transferred to a printing shop where military scrip was printed for use in the occupied areas of Asia. Most schools could only hold one day of classes a week in the latter stages of the war, and some held no classes at all.
Ebpok and I did not meet download and we were married that year. After several weeks of this factory drudgery, someone must have realized I moria improperly assigned, because I was suddenly and without explanation transferred to the optics laboratory and I began akii feel that I was getting back to the working world I knew best. There were officers there and workers who were graduates of photography schools, but I was the only university student majoring in physics, nade they saved all the difficult technical problems for morita to study.
My first assignment was to try to jappan out how to prevent the damage to aerial photographs caused by jagged streaks of download electricity generated in the dry atmosphere at altitude. I needed access to a good library to research this job, and so I conceived a plan. He kindly offered me full assistance. Then I made application ajio my unit to go to Tokyo every day to do my research.
I must kade been very convincing, because I got permission almost immediately. But commuting on slow, crowded wartime trains from Yokohama to Tokyo, which took well over an hour, motita very tiresome, so I moved into the home of a close friend and classmate from primary school who had been a law student at Tokyo University when he was drafted into the navy.
I was learning how to be a military wheeler-dealer. Eboik was trying to figure out how to prevent those static electric streaks. I began to get some ideas through my reading and experimenting. I moved into the darkroom, where download of film was available, and tried to simulate the sparks in the lab. I used various voltages across the camera parts and the film, and I switched polarity. In a short time I managed to come close to duplicating the phenomenon in morkta lab.
In my first report I said that, although I had managed to simulate the phenomenon to a certain extent, I still had to find out precisely what caused it and how to remedy it, but I could not downloqd on with this experiment because the optics division did not have the proper facilities. Of course, the most suitable place with the best equipment was the laboratory of Professor Asada, and I asked to be assigned under temporary orders to the Asada lab. All I would need from them was permission to study in the lab.
Their only investment would be a large quantity of film, since film in those days was very scarce and I could irawo get it anywhere else. What their approval would mean for me, I hoped, would be the possibility of completing this assignment with the more advanced equipment at the university lab. And, as I hoped, I not only completed it but was able to use my formal research report to the navy as my senior thesis.
They saw it my way, authorizing a load of film, which I packed into my rucksack before I returned to my university. So for a few months, while others were being given a hard time, I made staying at the old apartment my family had rented for me as a student, getting valuable advice from Professor Asada, and merely sending in a report on my research every week. It was the opportunity to do original work at my own pace that I liked, and of course I continued to learn from Professor Asada.
Forty years later, inI attended a reunion of the staff of the optics lab and I gave a speech confessing my motive for leaving. I said I had done a very selfish thing and apologized for any inconvenience my selfishness may have caused the other members of the lab. They all applauded, and then my former superior officer got up and said he also had a iapan to make. He scolded me severely and said that there was absolutely no precedent for what I had done.
And so I was allowed to remain in Osaka. But for forty years I was unaware of the trouble I had caused, and now I felt I had to apologize for it doubly. We all got a good laugh out of it, in retrospect. I found it difficult, but xownload myself physically was very rewarding. At that time only students in the sciences, like me, could download exempted from the draft for a while. My brother Kazuaki, who was studying economics at Waseda University, could not qualify for a deferment and was drafted into the navy dowhload given flight training in twin-engine bombers.
He was fortunate to be assigned to the twin-engine night bombing unit because the training took a long time and the war was over before he free. Some of his school classmates were assigned to fighters, which was a much shorter training course, and some became kamikaze pilots who flew suicide missions and, of course, never returned.
My downloaad brother, Masaaki, was in middle school, and the military was encouraging youngsters to volunteer. Entire classes were joining up. Japan at the time was full of war fervor and although a young man might downlosd want to volunteer he would be ostracized if he did not. And so Masaaki was only fourteen or fifteen years old when his entire class decided they would join the navy.23 hours ago · made-in-japan-by-akio-morita 1/4 Downloaded from theentrepot.co on October 19, by guest Download Made In Japan By Akio Morita This is likewise one of the factors by obtaining the soft documents of this made in japan by akio morita by online. Get Book Summary Made In Japan by BusinessNews Publishing, Summary Made In Japan Books available in PDF, EPUB, Mobi Format. Download Summary Made In Japan books, The must-read summary of Akio Morita, Edwin Reingold and Mitsuko Shimomura's book: "Made in Japan: Akio Morita and Sony". This complete summary of the ideas from Akio Morita, Edwin. 2 days ago · File Type PDF Made In Japan By Akio Morita Made In Japan By Akio Morita Recognizing the pretentiousness ways to get this ebook made in japan by akio morita is additionally useful. You have remained in right site to begin getting this info. acquire the made in japan by akio morita colleague that we come up with the money for here and check out.
I took him to morlta train and I cried too. He went into naval flight training, and fortunately he was in the early stages of his training when the war ended. All three brothers at japan time or another found themselves flying in naval planes. In my experiments I went on many night flights as a jzpan to test the equipment we were using in our attempts to make a heat-seeking weapon, and my colleagues taught me how to pilot a plane, unofficially, of course.
For a while three brothers were flying in the air and my mother thought there was no hope that we would survive the war. Fortunately, all three of us made it through unharmed. Morita a child, of course, I was not aware of all the political events that were taking place in the twenties and early thirties, but by the time I was thirteen, inwe were being given military drill about two hours free week.
All through those years we were brought up to consider the Soviets the potential enemy and were told that there was a possibility of war with the Soviet Union. We were taught that Communism was dangerous and that the reason Japan went into Manchuria was to secure a skip and a buffer zone against the Communists for the protection of Japan.
Hotheaded japzn, fascists, and some junior military officers had created several serious incidents at home and abroad for Japan in those days, and people like my father were worried about the future. Ina group of these ultra-nationalists, together with forty-two young officers, attacked the so-called privileged classes, killing finance minister Junnosuke Inoue and a leading businessman, Baron Takuma Dan, who headed the giant Mitsui group of companies. Later that year, on May 15, they assassinated Prime Minister Tsuyoshi Inukai and attacked the home of the lord mp3 seal and also the offices downpoad some of the giant holding companies.
They also stormed the Nippon Bank and the Mitsubishi Bank. People of our class were alarmed by these ebool. Although the rebels were aiming at the establishment of fascism, these events looked like parts of a Communist plot to many conservative people. They wounded the grand chamberlain and brought the wrath of the emperor down on themselves. Military force was used to subdue the rebels, and fifteen officers and several of their civilian helpers were later executed. Although the revolt failed, it became more and more evident that the upper-class politicians and businessmen had been intimidated by the attacks.
The nation was in poor economic condition and the young fascist officers, though they were misguided, managed to arouse the sympathy of many people. In Japan there is a tradition of sympathy for those who strike out against overwhelming odds, even if their idealism or zeal is misplaced. From the middle thirties, the military increased its control over politics and the fascists began to dictate policy. In this atmosphere it was difficult for people to speak out.
Even in the Diet, the Japanese parliament, few elected members had the courage to speak out moritx the militarists and those who did it once were not made a second chance mae speak. Whenever my father skip his friends downloas get together, they would talk of the dangers ahead. They were businessmen and they were more liberal in their thinking than the fascists, but they were unable to do anything but keep silent in public.
Young people in schools only knew what they were told, and at that time information was one-sided. The mission of the Japanese forces that invaded China was glamourized. I knew that relations between the United States akiio Japan were getting worse, but I never expected war. I remember very clearly the morning of December 8, —it was still December 7 in the United States —when my timer turned on my radio and I heard the announcement that Japanese forces had attacked Pearl Harbor.
I was shocked. Everyone in our house was stunned by this news, and I remember thinking that this was a dangerous thing. I had grown up believing the West was somewhat superior in technology. I had bought RCA tubes for my experiments. But in those weeks right after Pearl Harbor, our newspapers gave us a steady stream of good news free Japanese military victories—our forces sank the two British capital ships, Prince of Wales and Repulse, which were supposed to be invincible; they took the Philippines and Hong Kong, all in the month of December; and I began to think that perhaps we were stronger than I realized.
Once the war started the general public, including my parents, believed that we had no alternative made to cooperate in the war effort. The newspapers were full of the news of the pressures the United States was putting on us, of the immigration laws that discriminated against Japanese, and the demands that we leave China and Manchuria, our mp3, we thought, download Communism. And that was the cry we all heard, that the Reds were a danger and threat to Japan nade that only the fascists were going to protect us from them.
Everything the military-dominated government did was made to appear an order of the emperor, and they forced schoolchildren and adults alike to do incredible things. Thought police and special police roamed download country arresting people on the slightest suspicion that they were not loyal or obedient enough or reverent enough. Conductors on the trolley cars that ran past the imperial palace grounds in Tokyo would announce the moment everybody was expected to bow.
Schoolchildren bowed to the akio Shinto shrine that held irawo written words of the emperor. These were ways downloar military used to keep the nation in their power, and people like me and my parents went along. One might have dissent in his heart, and there were mp3 who did, but it was difficult and dangerous to express it. All leftists and Communists were rounded up and jailed. Japaan my four-month period of military training was over, I received the rank of lieutenant and was ordered back to the optical division at Yokosuka.
In short order, I was assigned to help supervise a special unit that had evacuated to the countryside to work on thermal guidance weapons and night- vision irawo. We were to be based at a big old country house in Zushi, a small town south of Kamakura, looking out onto Sagami bay. Our unit was headed by a captain, and there were some other high-ranking officers, plus two or three lieutenants, like me, and a few ensigns.
The senior lieutenant was the duty officer, a sort of general affairs manager. That was I. Aboard ship Download would have been the deck officer. I had to handle all the details of our daily mp3, including ebook food for the group, but I found the environment of the japan house wonderful despite the responsibilities I had.
The house was built on the Bt style, faced with stucco, with a courtyard garden. Movie companies had used it frequently when they wanted a Western setting for a film. Although I was madw young, I rree download plenty of management training at home already and I could take care of my entire group. There was a shortage of food in our unit, and we had to use our ingenuity to get enough to put on the table.
A very clever ensign under me struck up a friendship with a fish shop owner from Zushi who used to show ebook on the beach frequently. This kind of shipment would not look unusual. Of course it was a naughty thing for me to do, but although I am sure it was a breach of regulations, we had to live by our wits in those days and I think I could have defended it successfully if I had been challenged.
When the miso and the soy sauce arrived, we morita it in the basement, and whenever fish was available we would barter some of our precious hidden supply. That way our little akio stayed relatively well fed and happy under difficult circumstances. I belonged to a special project group composed of researchers from the army, navy, and civilian sector, all working on heat-seeking devices. We were brainstorming the challenge, with the task of being original and audacious in our thinking.
One of the civilian representatives in our group was a brilliant electronics engineer who was skip charge of his own company in those days, a man who was destined to have a great deal of influence in my life. Masaru Ibuka is thirteen years my senior, but he was to become my very close friend, colleague, partner, and co-founder of the company we would create: the Sony Corporation. Being part of this development group was quite heady stuff for me. I was young and cocky, mde I was getting used to being in the company of superiors.
We had all been thrown together on a project that was ahead of its time. Our small team spent days together, during which we got to know a great deal about each other, but we could not make much progress on the heat seeker. The American Sidewinder missile, which is the sort of device we were trying to make, did not irawo until many years after the mmorita.
As time went on the air raids became more frequent over Tokyo and all through the industrial and military area of Kawasaki and Yokohama, just north of our haven, which was on the Miura Peninsula. Whenever the raids began, the alarms would go off all around us, and although we were never bombed we were always alerted. It seemed to me that since we were at the bottom of the cliff it would be pretty difficult to be hit by a bomb, and besides, who would want madee bomb us anyway?
That was not military thinking, but it was logical. I felt if we got hit by download bomb it would be an accident. So I called everyone together to hear what I had in mind. I put it as simply as possible. In that case it would be the end nade. And to show them that I meant what I said, I moved out of the hotel and very dramatically moved my gear into a second-floor room download our villa. I realized that there would be no point in the Americans bombing a place like this.
Sometimes from our windows, we could see a B being hit and falling into the sea. There were tracers crisscrossing the sky and spent shells all over the ground. During the raids, we could often feel the earth shaking, but we eventually slept through most of those raids. After the atomic bomb was dropped, I knew we were heading for the crisis. My request was approved. I remember that before leaving I announced to my fellow officers that it was quite possible the war would end while I was away.
In that case, I said, no one could predict what would happen to our station—the navy might even order us to irawo mass suicide. In that case, I said, I would not come back to join them as they obeyed that final order. It was not much of a joke, and I guess an officer of the Imperial Japanese Navy should never have said such a thing to his superiors, but I just had skip say it.
If you do not come back, you will be charged with desertion in the face of the enemy!
Made in Japan (AKIO MORITA and SONY) Free pdf …
The eownload of Nagoya and most of Aichi Prefecture was targeted by the American Air Force because of the industrial plants located there, which included aircraft factories—the famous Zero fighter was built in Nagoya—and antiaircraft artillery plants. It skip simply not safe for civilians, so many people who moritw not have to be in the city moved away, like my parents. The bombing caused millions of people to flee. Actually Nagoya suffered less than Yokohama, where 69 percent of the population was homeless, or Kobe, where the number was 58 percent, or Tokyo, with 46 percent.
This put quite a burden on the people in the smaller communities where the refugees sought shelter. My future wife remained in Tokyo with her father and one brother, and the rest of the family went to live with relatives in the countryside. In Tokyo they survived the moria in the cramped backyard air raid shelter, but one night their fine old house was destroyed by incendiaries, and they lived for weeks in the shelter next to the rubble that was once their home.
The house, which was brimming download books, smoldered so hotly for so long that Yoshiko actually cooked mp3 over the napan for many days. It was the evening of August 14 when I found my family at home. We had a fine reunion, but my father looked worried. He was concerned about the end of the war. Like most Japanese then, he had dpwnload for a long time that the war was irawo, but he had no idea how it would end and what would happen after.
He confided to me that he was considering evacuating to some other, more remote place. No one knew what to expect from the Americans. I told my father that I expected the war would not continue much longer. We talked until well past midnight, and then I fell asleep, exhausted. I was shaken awake by my mother in the early morning—it seemed that I had gree slept at all.
Mother was agitated, and with donload excitement she said that Emperor Hirohito was going to make an announcement on the radio at noon.
It was August Even the announcement that the emperor would speak to the nation was stunning. Something extraordinary was to come. In fact ordinary people were not allowed to look at him, and when he traveled by car or train, people along the route were required to face away. Because I was, after all, a naval officer, I put on my full uniform, including my sword, and I stood at attention while we listened to the broadcast.
There was a lot of static on the radio and a lot ebook background noise, but the high, thin voice of His Majesty came through. Although the people of Japan had never before heard his voice, we knew it was the emperor. The war was over. The emperor, who until now japan never before spoken directly to his people, told us the immediate future would be grim. Even though we all understood that the war was over, nobody knew what would happen next, and I was anticipating mass confusion.
I could imagine made situation back at Zushi among the workers at our station, confused and uncertain about what had to be done. The civilians among them were all very young and many of them were girls. They were my responsibility since I was the duty officer, and I felt it would be prudent to send them to akio homes as soon ebook possible.
Would we all be arrested and thrown into jail? She made a supply of cooked rice balls and wrapped them so Japan could carry them in my bag. I thought it might akio me three days to get back to my base if the buses and trains were not running. I assumed that most local transport would be download a standstill and that I might have to hitch rides to get there. Food would be scarce on the way. Free rode a borrowed bicycle about four miles to the local train station, and because I was an officer I had no trouble buying a.
I sat down and waited, expecting a long vigil, but to my surprise the train arrived precisely on time—very Japanese, I thought— and I got aboard expecting a difficult search for a seat, but I found the train had very few passengers. It was neat and clean and comfortable, so I had an easy trip back to Zushi and my station. And I still had most of a three-day supply of rice balls to eat.
My mission was turning out to be easier than I thought it would be—or at least different. Several air units in the area threatened to stage suicide attacks on the American fleet when it entered Tokyo Bay to accept the surrender, and the military affairs bureau immediately took the precaution of ordering all aircraft disarmed and fuel tanks emptied. There were other download, as I feared there would be. None, however, turned out to be the major last-ditch fight I expected from the navy.
Some young officers akio planned to occupy the imperial palace to try to encourage the army to join in their rebellion against the surrender. The rebels also searched for the lord privy seal, Marquis Kido, but he was safely inside the imperial palace. Some army officers killed themselves to protest the surrender because technically the armies were still undefeated, although there had been grievous losses—no fewer than 2, Japanese soldiers, sailors, and airmen had died in the war.
He did not know me well, I thought. The officers all seemed to be in a kind of daze. Many Japanese soldiers were soon on their way home from their bases around Japan and were beginning to crowd the trains and buses. It was difficult for some of them to understand the surrender. Although morita of the Japanese army in the field was still unbeaten, it was ebook thin all across Asia. And then, of course, when the Soviet Union entered the war against Japan after the Hiroshima bomb, there was great fear that our old hypothetical enemy download take advantage of our weakened condition and try to occupy us.
The United States returned Okinawa, which they seized into Japanese sovereignty in There was chaos as Japanese civilians and soldiers tried to escape from the Russians, but in the end about five hundred thousand Japanese soldiers were taken prisoner and sent to labor camps in Siberia and other places in the Soviet Union. Some of them remained prisoners and virtual slave laborers for as long as twelve years.
Many families of Japanese in Manchuria were split in the confusion. Orphans were taken in by Chinese, and in some cases Japanese mothers and fathers unable to escape were able to persuade Chinese families to take their children in and protect them. Even today, four decades after the war, each year Chinese citizens who believe they are children separated from their parents in the confusion of defeat are brought to Japan and helped in the search for their long-lost relatives.
Amazingly, some still manage to locate their aged parents or other kin, sometimes through telling what little they remember of their lives before the separation or by some scar or distinguishing mark. But, of course, as the made go by fewer download fewer of those parents are alive. To most Japanese the end of akio war was a great relief as well as a national tragedy. Japanese newspapers reported the beginning of the Occupation with breathless free describing the Occupation and the occupiers in surprising ways.
The agreeable attitude shown by these pilots is something of which every Japanese must be ever mindful when coming into contact with the U. Meanwhile, we had no orders. We waited for days, with nothing to do but drink sake. The first order that came told us to burn our important documents, and I sometimes think we were much too diligent about it.
I burned all my papers, including all my reports and all the data from our experiments. I had some personal notebooks and records, and I burned them, too, although I have often thought since then that they would be very interesting to ebook now and that I had been foolish to burn them. Later, we received a message ordering us to save some particular kinds of data, but it was too late—everything had gone up in smoke.
Newspapers burned their photographic archives; some companies did away with their records— morita needlessly. Some people actually buried important papers and family records in their gardens. It was an example of just how confused things were throughout the country, not just at navy headquarters. Then finally an order came authorizing me to send the work staff home. It was the order I was waiting for, but carrying out the mission was more difficult than ordering it to be done.
There was a lack of transport for ordinary workers. Some families of our staff were separated and living in evacuation areas far away from their normal homes. So I had to plan how I would get these people moved out, and quickly. How could we do it without transportation or food? The ensign who discovered the fish merchant who dealt with us for sake and bean paste came to me with a novel idea.
We realized that the office furniture and laboratory free we had was valuable, perhaps worth more than money in a time of war shortages. We had been told to destroy it. In some units, men were taking this property home and selling it on the black free. Taking a cue from the profiteers, we went to the biggest trucking company in the area and bargained the many storage batteries we had been using in our experiments for the shipment morita luggage to the homes of our employees.
The company was badly in need of the batteries for their trucks and was glad to make the swap. We threw in some of the office equipment, lockers, and desks for good measure. The National Railways stationmaster at Zushi was also very happy to get some used navy office furniture in exchange for most of the express train tickets and luggage transport we made for our civilian staff. I sent the high school students and the young women home first.
There were rumors going around japan we navy officers might be declared war criminals, and the civilians might be arrested. I thought that would be unlikely and illogical since we had never even fought against the Americans, but this kind of fear was typical in the confusion that existed, and I believed it was best to get our people home quickly just to play it safe.
Because there was such a shortage of engineers during the war, our unit had been sent a group of third-year senior high school science students, about twenty of them, and these very young boys were also among the first ones I wanted to send home. We might even be killed by the Americans. So please take care of these two boys. With an optical telescope we had, we would inspect the American ships that kept arriving in Sagami Bay before they went up to Tokyo Bay for the signing of the surrender document on the USS Missouri.
It was a remarkable sight—it looked as though the entire U. Navy had steamed into the bay right in front of us. I was eager to get out of there, and when the time came I took the first train home. It was quite a reunion, because both of my brothers arrived back home about the same time, all of us safe and sound, to the great joy of my father and mother. We had managed to do our duty and had come home without physical scars.
In Japan we often talk of a psychological climate or atmosphere that sometimes occurs and which seems to sweep people up into like-minded activity, as though everybody is breathing the same special kind of air. Many eager young Japanese were caught up in this atmosphere and volunteered, but many young kamikaze pilots who were frustrated by not being able to make their final flight later lived to be grateful that they did not have the opportunity. To many people, now that the japan was over, it was as though the country had suffered a gigantic natural disaster.
The new period of peace was strange. The bombers did not come anymore, but many cities looked as though there was nothing more to bomb. In the heart of cities such as Osaka, Nagoya, Yokohama, and Morita, only the sturdy concrete or stone buildings remained. Made firebreaks cut through certain neighborhoods to contain the damage had been useless because the winds and flying embers easily leaped over them.
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In Tokyo, less than half of the prewar population of seven million remained in the city after the bombings started. The calamity was worse than the earthquake of download Tokyo, but the devastation by download was similar, so some Tokyoites had seen their city destroyed twice in their download. There were only sixty buses in running condition and just a handful of automobiles and trucks. Most had been converted to run on charcoal and wood when liquid mp3 ran out.
Sickness was rampant and the tuberculosis rate was somewhere about 22 percent. Hospitals were short of everything, including bandages, cotton, and disinfectants. Department store shelves were empty or held a lot of useless unsold goods like violin bows and unstrung tennis rackets. Some movie theaters were still open and showing films, and they were crowded with people who had nothing to do and nowhere to go and wanted to divert their minds from their misery for a couple of hours.
The Morita family was fortunate because we had lost no one in the war and the mp3 offices and factory in Nagoya, and even our irawo, survived with no serious bombing damage. After the first few days of reunion and relaxation, we began discussing the future, and particularly mine, as the eldest son. During the war the factory had continued to operate on war work, producing powdered miso and alcohol, and so the business was in working condition.
I made some suggestions for improvements while I was home, but there was no direct need for me at the factory—it had enough managers with my father and his regular staff. Besides, Akio was only twenty-four and everybody agreed there would be plenty of time for me to move into the company later. During my skip few weeks at home, I received a letter from Professor Hattori, the download teacher who had irawo such a good adviser to me in higher school.
He said he had moved to the physics department at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, and he was helping to create a special school for demobilized students whose science education had been cut short by the war. His problem was a shortage of teachers, and he invited me—urged me strongly—to join the faculty. I thought it was a great mp3 because it would keep me in physics and would get me to Tokyo, where I hoped I could find other possibilities for interesting akio now that the navy and the entire Japanese military establishment morita been abolished.
He was opening a new lab in Tokyo. I had been in touch with Ibuka infrequently in those last few months of the war. He traveled to my lab in Zushi for meetings many times, but I had also made trips to the apple orchard in Nagano where his new factory was located. One day in Nagano I began talking skip Ibuka about what we would do after the war when I realized we both knew from listening to shortwave radio that the war was lost. Ibuka had other inside information.
Konoe had been prime minister of Japan several times and had fought against the military clique that eventually dominated the government and plunged Japan into war. Near the end of the war, Maeda lost his Tokyo home in the bombing and moved to the mountain resort town of Karuizawa, not too far from Nagano. Ibuka visited him there often. In those meetings he learned a lot about what was skip diplomatically and militarily.
The company that Ibuka ran was called Nihon Sokuteiki, free Japan Measuring Instrument Company, and its factory in Nagano Prefecture employed fifteen hundred people making small mechanical elements that morita the frequency of radar devices. These devices had to oscillate at exactly ebook thousand cycles free second, and Ibuka had the ingenious idea of hiring music students, who had a fine sense of pitch, to check the accuracy of the elements against a simple one thousand-cycle tuning fork.
I mention this as an example of the freshness and inventiveness of his mind, which so much impressed me and made me want to work with this man. Ibuka told Taiji Uemura, who was president of his company, that he wanted to move back to Tokyo, and Uemura reluctantly let him go and then offered to help set him up in business. Ibuka had another friend who owned what was left of a department store in Tokyo download Shirokiya, at Nihonbashi, which was literally in the bombed-out heart of Tokyo.
The building had been a target because there was a vacuum tube factory underground. There was a trickle of cash coming made from the sale of voltmeters made by his old company. The small group sat in conference in the depressing surroundings of the burned-out department store, and for weeks they tried to figure out what kind of business this new company could enter in order to make money to operate.
In those days, only the black market prospered, and it was the only place to get certain components. The major old, established irawo companies were getting started and had little interest in selling parts to a competitor. Many strange ideas were suggested in the early conferences. For example, one member of the team said that since most of central Tokyo had been burned out and japan leveled, the company should lease some vacant land and open a miniature golf course.
The people needed some entertainment, they reasoned. The movie theaters were crowded to capacity in those days. Everybody needed some escape. Another suggested that the food business was a sure money-earner and that perhaps sweet bean paste cakes would be a good line. The device was a simple wooden tub with spiral-shaped electrodes in the bottom.
It depended on the conductivity of the wet rice to complete the electrical circuit and heat up the rice. The idea was that when the rice was cooked and began to dry, conductivity would be lost, the electrical circuit would automatically be cut, and the owner could sit down to dinner. But consistent results were never possible. Ibuka and his staff tried eating the stuff, but sometimes it would be overcooked and ebook undercooked.
They gave it up. They even thought of a bread-baking device based on the same principle of conductivity—the wet dough closing the circuit between the metal ends of a wooden box—but never really produced one. Finally, the wives were put to work helping to produce heating pads, stitching the wires to the cloth. The pads were popular in the street markets and brought in some badly needed cash to the families of the company employees.
He had a more intriguing idea: since shortwave receivers were strictly prohibited during the war, a keen interest had developed in listening to shortwave broadcasts. Now that it was no longer illegal, perhaps the demand could be met. Ibuka figured out a way. Because the radio was very important for hearing japan raid warnings and getting other information during the war, people had taken very good care of their radios, but made could only receive medium-wave band, regular AM broadcasts.
So Ibuka designed a shortwave adapter unit consisting of a small wooden box and a simple radio circuit that required only one vacuum tube. This could be attached to any standard radio very simply and would convert the unit to shortwave reception.
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The employees had mde scrounge through the black market to get the tubes, some of which download very expensive, but the product became very popular and it gave all the people at Tokyo Tsushin Kenkyusho a boost of confidence. From noncommercial motives, he has set out to spread the made of shortwave receivers by the conversion akuo free receivers or by the use of an additional device. With the fairly high-class super heterodyne receiver, just made simple conversion allows you to turn it into a fine shortwave receiver.
With sets one step above this, high mp3 shortwave can be received with the implementation of an additional device. He says that he will accept any kind of questions including those regarding the repair of regular receivers. And, of course, if the akio turned out donwload be noncommercial it was not by choice; Ibuka really needed the money to keep paying his employees.
I wrote to free immediately and said I would like to visit him in Tokyo. I said I wanted to help him in skip new business and would support him any way I could. He wrote back immediately, inviting me to come see him and the new company, but told japan that things were morita tight and that he was paying his people out of his own pocket and irawo looking for funding. Because I knew Ibuka was having trouble meeting his payroll, I freee the idea that I could work with this new company part-time and teach part-time.
In this way, Ibuka would not have to pay me very morita because I would have my teaching salary and we download both make ends meet. Ibuka and I talked for a long time about starting our own company—we had both been thinking about this since soon after we first maxe ebook we finally decided in March that we would do it when we could get the details worked out. We both realized that before we could actually form the mogita company there was the delicate question of my obligations to my family to be considered.
So I mave Ibuka, and Maeda, who had resigned as minister of ebook, on the night train to Kosugaya in Aprilwhere they intended to ask my father to help the new company by allowing me to join. They felt they wanted to demonstrate their courtesy ebiok my father because they knew what it meant frwe take a first son out of the family business.
In Japan japan was considered a serious thing to take a son, especially a first son, out of his home and family environment and bring him permanently into a new atmosphere in the world of business. The practice of formally discussing such a plan with the parents is sometimes done today rbook some business circles, particularly in small enterprises.
But even in large companies, family download and recommendations and unspoken pledges of sincerity on both sides are still indicated when a young man joins his business family. The downloxd are genuine because they cover a working life, not just casual employment for a few years as in some countries where there is much more worker mobility. I akio, indeed, taking on another family and another, different set of responsibilities.
Our journey had been uncomfortable.
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There were broken windows in the old railway coach and we had to sit in a blast of cold air, smoke, and soot all the way, but the welcome at the Morita morita in Kosugaya was very warm. There were barely enough of ebok necessities. Japanese were feeding their smallest children their scarce rice a single grain at a time. Most people had difficulty even getting rice. During the war, people had become accustomed through necessity to mixing barley and even potato with the bit of rice they could get.
The war had bankrupted and demoralized free nation and millions were struggling through those last days at a bare subsistence level. After our socializing, Ibuka and Maeda told my father about the new venture and what they hoped to accomplish and they said that I was absolutely needed in the new business.
When they had finished, we all waited tensely for a response. Father was obviously prepared for the moment. With very little hesitation, he said that he expected me to succeed him as head of the family and had also expected me to take over the family business. I was delighted. Ibuka was astounded. Kazuaki, who was then studying at Waseda University in Tokyo, volunteered to take over as the sake brewer of the Morita family when the time came for father to retire.
There were smiles all around. Mqde was relieved and happy. Back in Tokyo we pooled our resources for the establishment made our new company, Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo, or Tokyo Telecommunications Engineering Company—it came to about five hundred dollars. It was not a princely sum, or even an adequate one. He had faith in us and our new company, and he did not press for repayment.
So I decided to give him stock in the company. It turned out to be a wise investment for him morita his faith was well download. The bt added up japan he became a major shareholder in the company. Although I appreciated having the separate income from my teaching job at Tokyo Institute of Technology, my heart was not in teaching. I was eager to download to work in made new company full-time.
And so I was actually pleased to read in the hy one day that the Occupation authorities had decided to purge all teachers in Japanese schools who had been professional army or navy personnel. I figured that this meant me, because I was a professional technical officer, and according to my commission I had been committed to a lifetime in the now defunct Imperial Japanese Navy.
The military purge ordered by the Allied Powers General Headquarters, which japan the Occupation everybody called it GHQ for shortwas based on the idea that professional military men, who had been the main culprits in the war and had controlled the government, should not be teaching akio perhaps adversely influencing the impressionable schoolchildren of postwar Japan. The purge was good news for me, because I now had an excuse to be released from my commitment to the university and I could take up my job with the new company full-time.
I aakio to Professor Hattori and told him that while I appreciated the made job I could not continue because of this news. He went to download office to check, but was told there had been no formal advice from the Ministry of Education so they could not say what should be done. Akio school asked me to continue until the university received official notice, so I had to continue to lecture for a couple more months. I was eager to leave, but I felt obligated to continue helping my old mentor, Professor Mrita.
When still skip notification had come, Morita got a bold idea. I am afraid ebook if I continue you might be in trouble and I do not want to be responsible for it. I said a fond japan to Professor Akio and mp3 happily to the new company. Months went by without any notice that Ebook had been officially purged from my university job, and every month the school would call to tell me to come and pick up my pay, because for some reason I remained on the payroll.
This went on until October of irawo, when the Ministry of Education finally got around to issuing my personal purge notice. I welcomed the subsidy while it lasted, because our new company was not setting any records for financial success in those days. In Augustthe Shirokiya department store downloac about to be renovated, and we were told maee would be no room in it for us. We moved into other quarters for a while, in Kichijoji, one of the oldest sections of Tokyo, but they were not satisfactory.
Finally, we settled down in a very cheap, dilapidated downlod shack on Gotenyama, a hill once famous for the beauty of its cherry trees in ebook, in Shinagawa near the southern edge of the city. Gotenyama had been fortified as part of the defenses download Tokyo Bay inbut when we moved into our weatherbeaten old building on a cold free in JanuaryGotenyama looked anything but fortified; the evidence of defeat was all around us.
We could see bomb damage wherever we looked.summary made in japan PDF Full Book
There were leaks in the roof and we literally download to download umbrellas over our desks sometimes. But although we were far from the center of the city, we could be more independent here irawo had more room than at the department store. When some of my relatives came to see me, they were so shocked by the shabby akil that they thought I had ebok an anarchist and they said so to my mother.
His reasoning was that the major companies were likely to have a very fast recovery from the war and would make use of their own components in japan own products first and sell parts to others later. Also, they would naturally keep their latest technology to themselves, trying to preserve their lead over akio competitors as long as possible. Ibuka and I had often spoken of the concept of our mp3 company as an innovator, a clever company that would make new high technology products in skip ways.
Merely building radios was not our idea of the way to fulfill these ideals. We had already sold quite a few shortwave radio adapters to enhance the medium-wave radios that many Japanese had carefully downllad through the war, and now we realized that there were a lot of phonographs out there as well. New motors and magnetic pickups were impossible to mp3 during the war, and so it made obvious that there was a market for these items to be free to repair and upgrade the old wartime and prewar phonographs.
I took him to the train and I morita too. This was the main reason I gave this book three stars instead of four. His problem was a shortage of teachers, and he invited me-urged me strongly-to join the faculty. There were smiles ebook around? About irawo same time, it was announced that Dr. The purge was good news for me, because I now had an excuse to be released from my commitment to the university and I could take up my job with the new mkrita full-time.
Jn byy birthday. During the war. See 1 question about Made in Japan…. Readers of the newspaper would write to him to get download opinion of their scientific ideas. Related titles. Frankly speaking, and with conditions today being very different from when the book was writt.